Chapter: Splanchnocranium

Zygomatic bone

The zygomatic bone (os zygomaticum) is considered the strongest paired bone of the skull. The zygomatic bone is important in the articulation of the face. It connects the: Frontal bone Temporal bones Maxilla, by the following articulating processes: Frontal process (processus frontalis), which articulates with the zygomatic process of the frontal bone and with t he greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Temporal process (processus …

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The vomer is a single bone located vertically at the back of nasal cavity forming part of the nasal septum. Its superior border is split into two ala or wings of vomer (alae vomeris), which fit over the rostrum of the sphenoid  bone. The vomer articulates with the: Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. Cartilaginous nasal septum. Nasal crests of the maxilla. …

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Lacrimal bone

The lacrimal bone (os lacrimale)is a paired bone with a thin plate found in the medial wall of the orbit im- mediately behind the frontal process of the maxilla. It’s lateral surface carries the: Posterior crest of the lacrimal bone (crista lacrimalis posterior). Lacrimal groove (sulcus lacrimalis), which meets the sulcus of the frontal process of the maxilla to form the …

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Nasal bone

The nasal bone (os nasale)joins the frontal spine and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. It appears as the ethmoidal groove (sulcus ethmoidalis) which is created by the external nasal branch of the anterior ethmoidal nerve.

Inferior nasal concha (inferior turbinate bone)

The inferior nasal conchaor inferior turbinate bone (concha nasalis inferior)is a paired bone. Each inferior nasal concha presents two surfaces, two borders, two extremities and three processes (maxillary, lacrimal, and ethmoidal). Its inferior edge is free, while the upper edge articulates with the conchal crests of the maxilla and the palatine bone.

Palatine bone

The palatine bone (os palatinum)is a paired bone. It is a thin bone consisting of two plates (horizontal, and perpendicular) and three processes (pyramidal, orbital, and sphenoidal).


The teeth (dentes) are named from the center and then going laterally: Incisor tooth (dens incisivus) Canine tooth (dens caninus) Premolar tooth (dens praemolaris) Molar tooth (dens molaris) Man has two sets of teeth, the: Deciduous (milk) which are also known as primary dentation. The deciduous dentations (dentes decidui) appear between the 6th and 24 months. The first deciduous tooth is the …

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The maxilla (maxilla) or upper jaw is a paired bone. It takes part in the formation of the orbit, nose and septa between the cavities of the nose and mouth, and participates in the process of mastication. The maxilla consists  of a body and four processes (frontal, alveolar, palatine, and zygomatic). Four processes are as follows:

Hyoid bone

The hyoid bone (os hyoideum)is situated at the level of the base of the tongue, beneath the mandible and above the larynx. It consists of the: Body of the hyoid bone (corpus ossis hyoidei). Greater horn (cornu maius) which continues from both ends of the body and extends backward and laterally. Lesser horn (cornu minus) which arises from the junction of the body and …

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The mandible (mandibula) or the lower jaw is the sole mobile bone of the skull. It’s action is indispensable for mastication. Moreover, the mandible is the largest and toughest bone of the splanchnocranium. It is made up of two parts: body of the mandible, and ramus of the mandible.