Chapter: Vertebral Column

Landmarks of vertebral column

C1 transverse process is palpable between the mastoid process of temporal bone and the angle of mandibule. C2 spinous process is palpable just below the skull on deep pressure. C3 level is located at this same horizontal plane as the superior border of the thyroid cartilage which is visible in the front of neck as the laryngeal prominence. C6 the anterior …

Landmarks of vertebral column Read More »

Movements of the vertebral column

Flexion is limited by the ligamenta flava, the interspinous ligaments, the supraspinous ligaments, the nuchal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament; it is most extensive in the cervical part of the vertebral column, primarily at the atlantooccipital joint. Extension is limited by the anterior longitudinal ligament; it is noticeable in the cervical and lumbar part and is much …

Movements of the vertebral column Read More »

Coccyx

The coccyx (os coccygis) is a small triangular bone. It is formed from three or four vertebrae fused together. It articulates proximally with the apex of the sacrum. Coccygeal vertebrae are remnants of the tail and rudimentary vertebrae, fused together to form a single triangular bone, the coccyx. The number of coccygeal vertebrae varies from 3 to 5. The …

Coccyx Read More »

Sacrum

The sacrum (os sacrum) is the triangular shaped bone (irregular bone), which is composed of five sacral vertebrae (S1 to S5, fused in adults). The fused sacral vertebrae form a central sacral body, and paired sacral alae, arising laterally from S1. Clinical comments The fifth lumbar vertebra is occasionally fused with the top of the sacrum. This is called the sacralization of …

Sacrum Read More »

Structure of lumbar vertebrae

Lumbar vertebrae have massive vertebral bodies (kidney-shaped) without costal facets. The spinous process is thick and directed sagittally. The superior articular processes are concave and inferior are convex. Both have articular surfaces directed sagittally. The typical lumbar vertebrae have two additional, small processes called the mamillary process and accessory process. For lumbar puncture the patient …

Structure of lumbar vertebrae Read More »

Structure of thoracic vertebrae

The thoracic vertebrae like cervical one are divided into typical and atypical groups. Clinical comments Hunchback or kyphoscoliosis is an abnormal outward curvature of the vertebral column in the thoracic region. In most cases kyphoscoliosis may be congenital, but it can also result from poor posture or uneven growth of the vertebrae. Before the advent …

Structure of thoracic vertebrae Read More »

Structure of a typical vertebra

A typical vertebra is composed of the following three elements: Clinical comments Spina bifida (spina bifida) is a complex birth defect in which there is incomplete development of the laminae of the vertebral arch. If only the vertebral lamina is undeveloped and the spinal cord is intact without any skin abnormalities, this malformation is called spina …

Structure of a typical vertebra Read More »