The palatine bone (os palatinum)is a paired bone. It is a thin bone consisting of two plates (horizontal, and perpendicular) and three processes (pyramidal, orbital, and sphenoidal).
Horizontal plate (lamina horizontalis) which forms the hard palate with the maxillary palatine process located anteriorly. It has the:
- Nasal surface (facies nasalis).
- Palatine surface (facies palatina).
- Nasal crest (crista nasalis) which produces the posterior nasal spine (spina nasalis posterior).
- Greater palatine foramen (foramen palatinum maius) through which the palatine nerves and vessels leave the greater palatine canal.
- Lesser palatine canals (canales palatini minores).
Perpendicular plate (lamina perpendicularis) joins the nasal surface of the maxilla. It has the:
- Nasal surface (facies nasalis)
- Maxillary surface (facies maxillaris)
- Ethmoidal crest (crista ethmoidalis)
- Conchal crest (crista conchalis)
- Greater palatine groove (sulcus palatinus maior) which together with the maxillary groove forms the greater palatine canal (canalis palatinus maior).
Pyramidal process (processus pyramidalis) projects backward and laterally from the junction of the horizontal and perpendicular plates. In appearance it looks like a small pyramid with the pinnacle on top. This process closes the pterygoid notch of the sphenoid bone and fills in the pterygoid fossa, lend ing to its floor.
Orbital process (processus orbitalis) projects anteriorly from the superior margin of the perpendicular plate.
Sphenoidal process (processus sphenoidalis) projects posteriorly from the superior margin of the perpendicular plate.
Between orbital and sphenoid processes the sphenopalatine notch (incisura sphenopalatina)is located.